Menu Close

Mapping of Vitamin D Concentrations in Birmingham

Relationship of total 25-OH vitamin D concentrations to Indices of Multiple Deprivation: geoanalysis of laboratory results

Ann Clin Biochem. 2013 Jan;50(Pt 1):31-8. doi: 10.1258/acb.2012.011249. Epub 2012 Nov 12.

Abstract

Background

Vitamin D deficiency appears to be widespread and associated with ethnicity and economic status. Geography is the key to virtually all national statistics. It provides a structure for collecting, processing, storing and aggregating data. Linking geographic data to laboratory data allows analysis of the association of laboratory data with economic indicators.

Methods

The laboratory information system was searched to create a data-set of total 25-OH vitamin D concentrations, which was then linked to economic (Indices of Multiple Deprivation [IMD]) and ethnicity data using postcodes geocoded to Lower Super Output Areas (LSOAs).

Results

A total of 12422 25-OH vitamin D requests were received during the time period searched. A total of 12167 of these had associated postcodes that would allow georeferencing to LSOAs. The median total 25-OH vitamin D was 24.5 nmol/L (5.3-99.0; 2.5-97.5th percentile). Statistically significant (Spearman rank) correlations were found between median 25-OH vitamin D (nmol/L) and percentage of non-White population and percentage of non-White population and IMD. No statistically significant correlation between median 25-OH vitamin D concentration and IMD was found; however, a statistically significant correlation between percentage of population classified as severely deficient and IMD was found.

Conclusions

In summary, vitamin D deficiency is widespread and is related to ethnicity; it does not appear to be related to economic status except in cases of severe vitamin D deficiency.

References

  1. Levine, DA, Lewis, CE, Williams, OD. Geographic and demographic variability in 20-year hypertension incidence: the CARDIA study. Hypertension 2011; 57: 39–47 Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline, ISI
  2. Hyppönen, E, Power, C. Hypovitaminosis D in British adults at age 45 y: nationwide cohort study of dietary and lifestyle predictors. Am J Clin Nut 2007; 85: 860–8 Google Scholar, Medline, ISI
  3. Gannon, RHT, Millward, DJ, Brown, JE. Estimates of daily net endogenous acid production in the elderly UK population: analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) of British adults aged 65 years and over. Br J Nutr 2008; 100: 615–23 Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline, ISI
  4. Hippisley-Cox, J, Coupland, C, Robson, J, Brindle, P. Derivation, validation, and evaluation of a new QRISK model to estimate lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease: cohort study using QResearch database. BMJ 2010; 341:c6624 Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline
  5. Office of National Statistics – 2001 Census. See http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/census/census-2001/index.html (last checked 14 September 2012) Google Scholar
  6. Office of National Statistics. See http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/index.html (last checked 14 September 2012) Google Scholar
  7. The English Indices of Deprivation 2010. See http://www.communities.gov.uk/documents/statistics/pdf/1871208.pdf (last checked 14 September 2012) Google Scholar
  8. Office for National Statistics. Beginner’s Guide to Geo-referencing. See http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/naa2/quarterly-national-accounts/beginner-s-guide-to-geo-referencing.html (last checked 14 September 2012) Google Scholar
  9. Geography Policy for National Statistics. See http://www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/HTMLDocs/images/geography-policy-for-national-statistics_tcm97-102794.pdf (last checked 14 September 2012) Google Scholar
  10. Indicies of Multiple Deprivation Technical Report. See http://www.communities.gov.uk/publications/corporate/statistics/indices2010technicalreport (last checked 14 September 2012) Google Scholar
  11. Ford, L, Graham, V, Wall, A, Berg, J. Vitamin D concentrations in an UK inner-city multicultural outpatient population. Ann Clin Biochem 2006; 43(Part 6):468–73 Google Scholar, SAGE Journals, ISI
  12. Kuchuk, NO, van Schoor, NM, Pluijm, SM, Chines, A, Lips, P. Vitamin D status, parathyroid function, bone turnover, and BMD in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: global perspective. J Bone Miner Res 2009; 24: 693–701 Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline, ISI
  13. Huybrechts, I, Lin, Y, De Keyzer, W. Dietary sources and sociodemographic and economic factors affecting vitamin D and calcium intakes in Flemish preschoolers. Eur J Clin Nutr 2011; 65: 1039–47 Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline, ISI
  14. Jennings, A, Davies, GJ, Costarelli, V, Dettmar, PW. Micronutrient intakes of pre-adolescent children living in London. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2010; 61: 68–77 Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline, ISI
  15. Castetbon, K, Méjean, C, Deschamps, V. Dietary behaviour and nutritional status in underprivileged people using food aid (ABENA study, 2004-2005). J Hum Nutr Diet 2011 May 13 Google Scholar, Crossref, ISI.
  16. PostgreSQL: The world’s most advanced open source database. See http://www.postgresql.org/ (last checked 14 September 2012) Google Scholar
  17. PostGIS: Home. See http://postgis.refractions.net/ (last checked 14 September 2012) Google Scholar
  18. Data Supplied by the Office for National Statistics – NHS Connecting for Health. See http://nww.connectingforhealth.nhs.uk/ods/downloads/officenatstats (last checked 14 September 2012) Google Scholar
  19. Kinsey, R, Heynes, J, Webster, C. Validation of a LC-MS/MS method for measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and characterisation of vitamin D status in a West Midlands population. Ann Clin Biochem 2009; 46(Suppl. 1):78 Google Scholar
  20. Sulaiman, RA, Sharratt, CL, Lee, PW. Ethnic differences in umbilical cord blood vitamin D and parathyroid hormone – South Asians compared to Whites born in the UK. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2010; 23: 1315–7 Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline, ISI
  21. Davies, JH, Reed, JM, Blake, E, Mrcpch, MP, Jackson, AA, Clarke, NMP. Epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency in children presenting to a pediatric orthopaedic service in the UK. J Pediatr Orthop 2011; 31: 798–802 Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline, ISI
  22. Puri, S, Marwaha, RK, Agarwal, N. Vitamin D status of apparently healthy schoolgirls from two different socioeconomic strata in Delhi: relation to nutrition and lifestyle. Br J Nutr 2008; 99: 876–82 Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline, ISI
  23. Salamoun, MM, Kizirian, AS, Tannous, RI. Low calcium and vitamin D intake in healthy children and adolescents and their correlates. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005; 59: 177–84 Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline, ISI
  24. Community and Living, Birmingham City Council. See http://www.birmingham.gov.uk/cs/Satellite?c=Page&childpagename=Planning-and-Regeneration%2FPageLayout&cid=1223096353755&pagename=BCC%2FCommon%2FWrapper%2FWrapper#BDB (last checked March 2012) Google Scholar
  25. 2009 Birmingham Ethnicity Briefing. See http://www.birmingham.gov.uk/cs/Satellite?blobcol=urldata&blobheader=application%2Fpdf&blobheadername1=Content-Disposition&blobkey=id&blobtable=MungoBlobs&blobwhere=1223468028667&ssbinary=true&blobheadervalue1=attachment%3B+filename%3D61653BDB_2011-02_2009_Ethnic_Groups.pdf (last checked March 2012) Google Scholar
Posted in Research, Uncategorized

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.